Reproduced below is a German memorandum on defense measures to be
taken by ground forces against air attack. It is both comprehensive and concise.
For previous reference to this subject, see Tactical and Technical Trends,
No. 30, p. 6.
* * *
(1) The activity of the enemy air force is directed against all resources
of the German armed forces. It is, therefore, the duty of every single soldier
and of all arms to combat enemy planes.
(2) The enemy plane can attack only when he can see you, your weapons,
your vehicle or your tent. Avoid being "spotted" (sighted) from the air. The
best protection against being seen is camouflage.
(3) Camouflage means adaptation to the forms and colors of the surroundings. Keep
this in mind. Incomplete camouflage is better than none. However,
an incorrect type of camouflage, such as the accentuation of color contrasts and
the creation of noticeable shadows is worse than no camouflage at all. This will
attract the attention of the enemy aviator.
Camouflage must be changed continually in accordance with the
surroundings, background, weather, and even according to the time of the day. Efforts
by each individual man increase the protection for all.
(4) On marches or at halts, in rest areas, while in readiness, attacking
or defending, the leader must keep in mind to deploy the units, to disperse columns
and marching groups, to keep proper distance between groups, as well as dispersal
to the flanks. Gun emplacements of heavy weapons, preparations for combat of
tanks, assault guns, and cars must be carried out near groves, in town-alleys or
gardens, or near haystacks, or at least in surroundings which lend themselves
for camouflage purposes.
(5) Execute marches and movements, even of smaller units, as much as
possible at night. Avoid crowding. No halts at crossroads, squares or narrow
places. Strictest black-out discipline. If flares are released by the enemy, cease
marching, stop cars, don't move--hold draft and pack animals.
(6) Bombing attacks and attacks by other airplane weapons cannot be
successful if you acquire cover against fragmentation for yourself, your weapon
and your vehicle by digging. Remember: dig slit trenches when engaged in
tactical situations, even at temporary halts or employments.
Never dig a slit trench beneath a motor vehicle (tanks excepted).
(7) On marches, the leader will order at least one man per platoon as an
air guard; if troops are being transported on motorcars, at least one guard per
(8) 20-mm AA self-propelled guns will always be ready for combat.
Motorized troops must have the AA machine guns on trucks ready for combat.
Keep sub-machine guns handy, distribute ammunition.
(9) On halts and in rest areas, designate a responsible superior for
antiaircraft defense. Keep antiaircraft machine guns in readiness (in triangular
(10) Weapons must be camouflaged. Fire only if the object to be protected
is attacked and if the airplane is within range of the weapons.
(11) If an air attack is imminent, cannoneers and machine gunners will
not leave their posts.
(12) Cannoneers and gunners are not to be used as air sentinels.
(13) Each target must be combated with several types of weapons. Designate
one gun or machine gun to be on the alert, in order to open fire at a moment's
notice, and to concentrate fire on the target by platoon or machine-gun section.
(14) Keep calm and don't get excited. To prevent damage by bombs or
other airplane weapons and to efficiently repulse all attacks, act cautiously but
(15) There is no such thing as "air-terror".