An indication of possible reckless or unintelligent flying on the part of
GAF pilots may be found in recent instructions, establishing certain
restrictions on the operation of various airplanes, issued by the Germany Air
Ministry. This was done to reduce the loss of, or damage to, particular
planes by overtaxing their capabilities. The particular types covered are the
FW-190, the Me series, the He-177, and the Ju-88.
The maximum permissible operating speed for the FW-190 have been
reduced from 466 mph at all heights to the following:
|Up to 10,000 ft - 466 mph|
|From 10,000 ft to 16,500 ft - 428 mph|
|From 16,500 ft to 26,250 ft - 360 mph|
These speeds are to be marked on the air speed indicators in each aircraft
and are only permissible with strengthened elevators. Aileron corrections
at high speeds must remain within moderate limits.
The He-177 combines light elevator control with good elevator effect,
but has a comparatively low factor of safety, with the result that wrinkling
of the skin on the wings or wing failures may occur from careless flying.
Permissible pull-out acceleration at the present time amounts to 2.3g with a
flying weight of 27 tons, and crews are reminded that high stresses may be
caused when pulling out of a glide at high speed, by sharply pulling up out of
horizontal flight at any speed, and in steep turns or by strong vertical gusts
at high speed. A warning is issued that the automatic pull-out apparatus can
unintentionally cause a strain of over 2.5g by tail-heavy trimming before the
release of the bombs, by pulling back on the control column at the time of the
automatic pull-out if the centre of gravity lies too far to the rear, or when
dive-bombing is done in very gusty air. In the latter case, speed should be reduced
to 186 mph. The pilot must be trained to watch closely the air speed indicator
and the acceleration warning apparatus during every pull-out.
In the case of all aircraft of the Me-109 series, including the Me-109G,
attention is called to the numerous accidents caused by wing breakages,
resulting from strains induced by air speeds in excess of the permissible
maximum limits. All previous limitations are therefore cancelled and the
following are substituted (previous limits are given for comparison):
|Up to 10,000 ft || 466 mph ||466 mph|
|At 16,500 ft || 435 mph ||425 mph|
|At 23,000 ft || 357 mph ||382 mph|
|At 30,000 ft || 280 mph ||341 mph|
|At 38,000 ft || 248 mph ||304 mph|
A corresponding notice is to be placed on all airspeed indicators in these aircraft.
Warning is also given against yawing in a dive, which under certain
conditions leads to high, one-sided wing stresses which the wing tips cannot
support. When yawing occurs, the dive is to be broken off gradually, without
exercising force. Wing tips must be examined and checked frequently for
signs of failures. When yawing is encountered during turning, correction must
be made with the rudder only and not with the ailerons. Mention is also made
of high-wing stresses caused by the unintentional unlocking of the landing gear
especially the dropping of one side in a dive. It is stated that steps are being
taken to prevent this.
Apparently, even the yellow recognition paint on the ailerons changes
their characteristics unfavorably and paint already put on is to be removed.
Reference is made to the difficulty of controlling Ju-88 aircraft at a dive
angle of 60°, and it is stated that in the future they are to be rigged for a dive
angle of 50° only. This will limit the indicated air speed in the dive to between
329 and 341 mph as against 341 to 354 mph obtained in a 60° dive.