A U.S. observer, thoroughly acquainted with the operations in the Middle
East, has concluded that the following factors were mainly responsible for the
recent British victory in this theater: (a) definite superiority over enemy in fire
power and personnel; (b) coordination of action by all arms; (c) determined
generalship; (d) careful planning and diligent training; (e) elaborate measures
to insure deception; and (f) complete enforcement of security precautions.
Most of these factors could be called the essentials of any successful
offensive, but some are peculiarly related to past performances in this theater. The
changes made in the British high command undoubtedly had much to do
with the success of the British offensive. The primary effect of the change in
leadership was a change in tactical doctrines. With regard to the measures takes
to secure deception, it might be pointed out that this went far beyond the usual
feint in one sector followed by the major thrust in another. The lack of natural
cover on the desert battleground has caused both sides to resort to extensive use
of camouflage. In this particular operation, camouflage played a very important
role. British tanks were camouflaged as trucks, and complete dummy armored
brigades were spotted over the desert.
Certain other factors were deemed to have been contributory to the
British success, such as: heavy and effective use of artillery; concentration of
armored strength; deliberate choice of limited objectives; and clearing of
minefields in the rear after the initial breakthrough.