A charred diary taken from the wreckage of an Heinkel III airplane brought down
in May, 1941 in the Middle East was found to contain rough notes of a lecture on
Although for the most part these notes confirmed our previous knowledge of German
Chemical Warfare the following entries are worthy of comment:
(I) Mention is made of toxic smoke and lachrymatory generators - "80% Blue Cross or
White Cross." This is the first definite reference to German toxic smoke
generators, although their existence has been suspected and samples from the
private firm of Stoltzenberg have been examined: They are presumably intimate mixture
types in which the toxic charging represents 80% of the total weight of the device.
(II) Under the heading "Gas projectors and gas mines" it is stated
that the filling used in "Green Cross and exceptionally, Blue Cross;
range 3,500 metres." This range is too high for a projector of the
Livens type and may possibly refer to the new German 10 cm. Stokesbrandt
type mortar. "Green cross" is the German marking for the lung
irritant group of war gasses (i.e. chlorine, phosgene, etc.), while
"Blue Cross" is used to denote the arsenical toxic smokes.
(III) Describing gas shell for field artillery, the gas content
is given as 10%.
This figure is high and may indicate that high capacity designs for gas
shells have been introduced.
(IV) Under the heading of ground contamination methods, a Yellow
Cross (mustard) spray mine is mentioned. This may be based on the
Czechoslovak "Chema" chemical mine, in which an outer cylinder was used
to project the mine into the air where it burst at a predetermined height.
(C.W.S. COMMENT: Permeable protective clothing issued to American
soldiers gives all the protection practicable against mustard gas
vapor and a large measure of protection against liquid lewisite. It
gives protection against the vapor of lewisite but only limited
protection against liquid lewisite. Against the so-called nitrogen mustard,
American clothing provides rather limited protection against both vapor
and liquid. At present, tests and development work now going on
indicate that a greater measure of protection can be provided by further
chemical treatment of the clothing. Tests have not proceeded far
enough at this time to justify definite conclusions. Development is
underway, the purpose of which is to provide an impermeable protective
cape which will not be penetrated by liquid agents of either of the
lewisite mustard or the nitrogen mustard types of agents.
A protective ointment is being issued to American troops which
gives protection against Lewisite M1 and Mustard. The results of tests
of the protection against nitrogen mustard are not yet available.
Detector papers and paints are being issued to troops which will
indicate the presence of liquid mustard, lewisite or nitrogen mustard. A
detector kit has been standardized, but not yet issued, which will
also detect the presence of the three above described agents.
Rockets - Although the British have issued a rocket type weapon to
their chemical warfare troops as a part of their armament, American
chemical warfare troops are not so equipped. Development work is now
underway which promises to provide an improved rocket type chemical
Chemical mortar - Tests are now being conducted on the 4.2-inch
chemical mortar, the standard for American chemical warfare troops, to
increase the maximum range up to approximately 3200 yards as contrasted
to the present maximum of 2400 yards. From results so far obtained
this seems practicable.
High-explosive shells - A military requirement has been established
for a high explosive shell of the 4.2-inch chemical mortar. It is
expected that this development will be completed at an early date and
production of several hundred thousand of these shells initiated.
Gas mask - The American gas mask will protect against all known
gases in the field.)