Blueprints and plans of future campaigns could not be considered complete
without the use of para-troops.
The types of chutes used by German troops of this branch consist at least of three kinds:
marked R. Z. 1, R. Z. 16, and 36 D. S. 28. The R. Z. 1 appears
to be the standard type.
The parachute equipment is divided into four main parts: the parachute
proper (or canopy and rigging lines), the containing bag and pack, the harness,
The parachute itself consists of a silken canopy made up of a certain
number of panels, each panel cut in the shape of a thin isosceles triangle with
the apex removed. The R. Z. 1 and the 36 D. S. 28 (and probably
the R. Z. 16) parachutes have 28 panels. Each panel has 4 gores (tapered sections), cut from
a single piece of material in such a manner that warp and weft are both at an
angle of 45° to the long axis of the panel. Panels are numbered serially in the
lower corner, number 1 carrying in addition the special markings of the
parachute. These are the manufacturer's stamp or trademark, which includes type,
mark number, weight, date of manufacture, and identification number; the
manufacturer's inspection mark, giving the date of the last factory inspection; and
the Air Ministry stamp which gives the date of the Air Ministry inspection.
In a parachute with 28 panels there are 14 rigging lines which pass
through the top vent, and are continued down through the seams on opposite sides
of the canopy and then run as free lines to the lift webs. Each line
is 21 meters (69 ft.) long, so that with such a canopy as the one
described, 62 sq. meters (648 sq. ft.) in area, there is
some 5 to 6 meters (16 to 20 ft.) of free rigging line on
each side, between the periphery of the canopy and the lift webs.
When packed the canopy and rigging lines go insides the bag, which is
fastened by means of a ring to the static line. The bag is then contained within
the pack which consists of a base (next to the man's back) and 4 flaps which close
over the bag.
A further bag, in which the whole parachute is kept during shipment, is
included among the accessories, and is removed when the person enters the plane.
The harness is made of webbing and consists of a belt with large buckle
in front, two braces, two thigh straps, and a strap across the top of the chest. It
is connected to the rigging lines by hemp lift webs. Each web is so made that
its lower end forms an eye which fits into the appropriate "D" ring of the
harness where it is secured by a screw, the free upper ends being joined to form
two eyes. To each of the four eyes so formed, seven rigging-line ends are attached.
The parachutes are automatically opened by a static cord, 6 meters (20 feet) long, fastened
to the inside of the plane, which pulls the bag away from the pack, releasing
the canopy, and then becomes detached, taking the bag with it. After a drop of
some 80 feet the parachute has become completely operative and the subsequent
falling speed of a man and parachute is about 16 feet per second.