Technical Manual, U.S. War Department, October 1, 1944
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Appendix: Supplemental Data
1. JAPANESE YEAR DATES.
NOTE. When Japanese year dates are given the year may be found as follows:
In the Meiji period, add the Japanese year date to 1867.
In the Taisho period, add the Japanese year date to 1911.
In the Showa (present) period, add the Japanese year date to 1925.
For example Meiji 13 is 1880, Taisho 13 is 1924, and Showa 13 is 1938.
2. JAPANESE WEIGHTS, MEASURES, AND MONEYS. a. Distance and Length.
Ri = 36 chō = 2,160 ken = 2.4403 miles = 3.92727 kilometers.
Ri (marine) = 1 nautical mile = 1.85319 kilometers.
Ken = 6 shaku = 60 sun = 5.965163 feet = 1.81818 meters.
Shaku = 10 sun = 100 bu = 0.994194 feet = 0.30303 meter.
Shaku (cloth measure) = 1.25 shaku.
Tan (cloth measure) = a roll of about 25 shaku.
b. Land measure.
Square ri = 1,296 square chō = 5.95516 square miles = 15.52345 square kilometers.
Chō (area) = 10 tan = 3,000 tsubo = 2.45065 acres = 99.17355 ares.
Tsubo or bu = 3.95369 square yards = 3.30579 centiares.
Ko (Formosa) = 2,934 tsubo.
c. Quantity, capacity, and cubic measures.
Go = 10th of a sho.
Koku (capacity of vessels) = 10th of a shipping ton.
Koku (timber) = about 1 by 1 by 10 feet.
Koku (fish) = 40 kwan (in weight).
Shakujime (timber) = about 1 by 1 by 12 feet.
Taba (fagot, etc.) = about 3 by 6 by 6 feet.
3. METHOD OF NUMBERING MODELS. a. Before 1926 the model number of weapons and equipment was indicated by the year of the reign in which the model was adopted. Since 1926 the model has been numbered from what is assumed to be the date of the founding of the Japanese Empire. The last two digits of this number are used up to the year 1940. Models adopted in 1940 are simply designated as "0" (Zero). Models adopted in 1941 are designated "1" and so on.
b. A comparative table indicating the western year, the Japanese year, and the model number corresponding thereto follows:
c. This method of marking equipment is in general use in both the Army and the Navy for numbering types of equipment, including airplanes, tanks, pieces of ordnance, etc.
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