Technical Manual, U.S. War Department, October 1, 1944
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Chapter IX: Weapons
Section II: Infantry Weapons
2. MACHINE GUNS. a. (1) The basic machine gun is the "Nambu," Model 11 (1922) 6.5-mm light machine gun, which is a modification of the French Hotchkiss. Other types that have been directly copied are the Lewis, the Vickers, and in one instance the Oerlikon. These weapons will be found listed in the following pages. A matter of note is that Japanese machine guns generally do not employ slow initial extraction and therefore stoppages are frequent. The Japanese, in order to overcome this, have employed various methods of oiling ammunition either by automatic or gravity oilers, built directly on to the weapon, or oiling ammunition before loading into box magazines. To complicate the ammunition picture even further, they have indicated that their 6.5-mm machine guns normally use a reduced charge, possibly to overcome stoppage and to avoid pre-oiling. Also their 7.7-mm light and heavy machine guns are built to use either a rimmed, semirimmed or rimless ammunition, which, with one exception noted in the following pages, is not interchangeable.
(2) Submachine guns. No submachine gun of Japanese manufacture, comparable to the Thompson, M3 or Reising has been found, although several German Solothurn 7.63-mm (.30 cal.) and 9-mm (.35 cal.) SMGs and Schmeisser MP 28II, SMGs have been recovered.
b. Model 11 (1922) 6.5-mm light machine gun. (1) General description. This is a gas operated, air-cooled, machine gun with hopper feed which holds 6-5 round clips of ammunition (fig. 178). Positive identification can be made from the following markings which appear on the top of the receiver and read "11th year model." It is equipped with a blade front-sight and a V notched rear leaf-sight sliding on a ramp. There is no windage or drift adjustment. The safety lever (see fig. 178) is turned down to a vertical position to make the weapon safe.
(3) Ammunition. Clips of 5 rounds standard or reduced charge 6.5-mm ball rifle ammunition are used.
c. Model 96 (1936) 6.5-mm light machine gun. (1) General description. This
is a gas-operated, magazine-fed, air-cooled, full automatic light machine gun (fig. 179). Its
appearance is somewhat similar to that of the British Bren. The
"Model 96" and are stamped on the top of the receiver. This weapon has a blade
front sight and a leaf rear sight controlled by a "click" drum. The graduations
are from 200 to 1,500 meters and there is a windage adjustment. There is also a
telescopic sight with a 10° field of view and a
(3) Ammunition. 6.5-mm semirimmed cartridges in boxes marked (G) are provided for this weapon. These have the same dimensions as the standard 6.5-mm cartridge although the Japanese have indicated that these have a reduced propelling charge. The regular rifle ammunition may cause stoppages, but can safely be used.
d. Model 99 (1939) 7.7-mm light machine gun. (1) General description. This is a gas-operated, magazine-fed, air-cooled, light machine gun (fig. 180).
Its appearance is almost identical to model 96 with the two exceptions, that it has an
adjustable rear monopod and a barrel locking nut instead of a barrel catch. It can
further be identified by the markings on the top of the
"99 Model". It has a blade front sight and a rear peep sight controlled by a "click" drum
graduated from 200 to 1,500 meters. There is a windage adjustment. A telescopic
sight 10° field of view and
(3) Ammunition. The weapon uses 7.7-mm rimless ammunition only. This ammunition can be used in model 92 heavy machine gun, but the semirimmed ammunition for model 92 cannot be used in this gun.
e. Model 92 (1932) 7.7-mm Lewis type MG. (1) General description. This weapon is an air-cooled, gas operated, drum-fed, full automatic gun. (See fig. 181.) With the exception that the cocking handle is on the left and that there is no provision allowing it to be changed to the right side of the gun, if so desired, this weapon is a duplicate of the British Lewis. It can easily be recognized by its similarity to the latter weapon. The markings meaning "92 Model" are stamped on the receiver. Without removing the gun from its mount, the main portion of the tripod head can be moved from a horizontal to a vertical position, making a satisfactory AA mount. This can be done in approximately 15 seconds.
(3) Ammunition. 7.7-mm rimmed ammunition, Japanese copy of British 0.303, and British MK VII .303 in. ball ammunition.
f. Model 92 (1932) 7.7-mm heavy machine gun. (1) General description. This is the standard Japanese heavy machine gun. It is a gas-operated, strip-fed, full automatic, air-cooled, modified Hotchkiss-type weapon (fig. 182).
Its forerunner, which may still be used, was the Model 3 (1914) which fired 6.5-mm ammunition. Markings which appear on the receiver read "92 Model." The standard sights consist of a blade front sight and a rear peep sight mounted on a post adjustable for windage and range (300 to 2,700 meters). Special antiaircraft front and rear sights are provided, and there are 3 variations of optical rear sights which are often used. The weapon is set on safety by turning the trigger thumb piece.
(3) Ammunition. This gun uses 7.7-mm semirimmed ammunition (ball, tracer, AP and incendiary). It can also use the 7.7 rimless ammunition if loaded on strips.
g. Model 93 (1933) 13-mm machine gun. (1) General description. This is a gas-operated, air-cooled, magazine-fed, full automatic, Hotchkiss type weapon (fig. 183). While it is primarily an antiaircraft gun, it can be used for ground purposes. This weapon has been found in single and twin mounts, (see sec. III, par. 3). The markings meaning "93 Model" appear on the receiver. The antiaircraft sights on dual mounts are of the calculating type graduated for ranges from 200 to 3,000 meters, with provision for corrections based on plane speeds varying up to 500 kilometers per hour. For ground use there is a blade front sight and a leaf rear sight graduated from 200 to 3,600 meters.
(3) Ammunition. Ball, armor piercing, and tracer cartridges are provided.
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