CHAPTER X. GERMAN AIR FORCE
Section IV. ARMY AND NAVY COOPERATION
Air Force cooperation may be of three types: direct or close support (tactical support); indirect support (strategic missions); and liaison.
1. Direct or Close Support
Close support usually is confined to the actual battle front and the area immediately behind it. It consists of bombing and strafing enemy ground forces, tanks, artillery, pillboxes, field defense works, antiaircraft defenses, forward dumps, and supply columns. It also includes air cover as protection for ground and Air Force units against enemy air attacks, and against enemy air reconnaissance. All types of aircraft may be used for these operations.
2. Indirect Support
Indirect support involves attacks on targets beyond the battle area such as rear maintenance and supply depots, enemy airfields, railroads, industrial centers, etc.
Liaison between the Army and Air Force for both army cooperation and tactical reconnaissance is provided by specially trained Air Force officers known as Flivos (Fliegerverbindungsoffiziere). The German Air Force support is requested by the Army units through their superior commands. The armies transmit the request to the competent headquarters authority where a German Air Force liaison officer (Flivo) is stationed. Such headquarters are generally those of Army groups. German Air Force Signal Liaison officers (Fliegerverbindungsoffiziere (Ln)) are stationed with Army corps headquarters and in some particular cases with division headquarters. A German Air Force Liaison Officer is specially assigned to Army Headquarters for the purpose of directing close cooperation between the Army and German Air Force reconnaissance units (Fliegerverbindungsoffiziere (Aufklärung)). For the control of the close support missions, which as a result of these requests are ordered by the German Air Force Command (Fliegerkorps or Luftflotte HQ), special German Air Force officers are stationed at the front line. These control officers (Fliegerleitoffiziere) direct the flying formations to their targets by radio from advanced observation posts on the ground.
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