[DISCLAIMER: The following text is taken from the U.S. War Department Technical Manual, TM-E 30-451: Handbook on German Military Forces published in March 1945. — Figures and illustrations are not reproduced, see source details. — As with all wartime intelligence information, data may be incomplete or inaccurate. No attempt has been made to update or correct the text. — Any views or opinions expressed do not necessarily represent those of the website.]
CHAPTER I. THE GERMAN MILITARY SYSTEM
Section VI. CONSCRIPTION, REPLACEMENT, AND TRAINING
a. INTRODUCTION. (1) Types of training establishments. The general military training of the German soldier takes place principally in the training units of the Replacement Army, although a certain amount of training also is given in its replacement units. Training units also are prepared to conduct special courses in order to provide some types of specialized personnel, as required by the Field Army, and to secure a pool of personnel trained with particular care as potential officers and noncommissioned officers. In addition to these general training units, numerous schools and courses have been established with the specific purpose of training potential officers and noncommissioned officers. Other schools, designated as special-service schools (Waffenschulen), have the function of providing specialized training for officers and enlisted men of their particular branch of service, developing its arms, equipment, and tactics with the help of their demonstration units, and furnishing instructors for the Army. In addition, specialist training schools are established to provide instruction for ordnance officers, technical officials, and particularly noncommissioned officer-technicians, or for officers and noncommissioned officers of all arms and services as specialists in certain particular functions, such as air raid and gas protection.
(2) Chain of command. The training in most types of replacement and training units, which are under the command of the Wehrkreis headquarters exercised through intermediate staffs, is coordinated by the Chief of Training in the Replacement Army. He exercises his authority through the Inspectors of Arms and Services, who issue directives regarding the particular training in their arms to the Wehrkreis headquarters. These directives are based on tactical doctrines worked out in detail by the Inspectorates of Arms and Services in the General Army Office, which, in turn, follow instructions from the Chief of Training and his Inspectors.
The directives for the training of Panzer troops are issued by the Inspector General of Panzer Troops, who is directly subordinate to Hitler. The training of medical troops is directed by the Chief Army Medical Inspector, who is directly subordinate to the Army High Command, and that of veterinary troops by the Chief Veterinary Inspector, immediately under the Armed Forces High Command.
The training of potential officers and noncommissioned officers wherever it occurs, takes place either under the command or under the supervision of the Inspector General for Potential Officers and noncommissioned officers. His authority is restricted to supervision when this type of training takes place in establishments under the command of the Chief of Training, the Inspector General of Panzer Troops, or any Wehrkreis headquarters. Special-service schools and specialist training schools are under the command of the Chief of Training with the exception of the Schools for Panzer Troops, which are commanded by the Inspector General of Panzer Troops.
(3) Supplementary training. The paragraphs below describe how the various types of training units and schools discharge their functions. It should be kept in mind that these functions are supplemented in many ways. A considerable part of the military training in Germany is given in the form of pre-Army training by other military and auxiliary organizations. Special abilities found in various civilian occupations are put to use by the Army, and only personnel with a certain professional background are trained for a number of technical employments within the Army. Civilian establishments sometimes are used for the training of Army personnel; for example, technical courses often are conducted in factories producing special types of equipment.
b. GENERAL TRAINING. (1) Organization of training units. In principle, the training unit is a true image of the field unit which it supplies with trained replacements. Thus, the infantry training battalion, just like any battalion of an infantry regiment, consists of the 1st, 2d, and 3d rifle training companies, and the 4th machine-gun training company. This principle has been somewhat modified, however, in order to take advantage of specialized training personnel and to expedite the training; thus, drivers of horse-drawn vehicles, for example, usually are not trained within each training company but combined into a special detachment within the battalion. The infantry training regimental staff, in accordance with the normal (pre-1944) composition of a regular infantry regiment, usually controls three infantry training battalions, a 13th infantry-howitzer training company, and a 14th infantry anti-tank training company; in addition, however, it often has controlled a 15th infantry signal training company, and every second or third staff a 16th infantry engineer training company to furnish trained personnel for the signal platoons in battalion headquarters and the signal and engineers platoons in the regimental headquarters company. Recently, a 17th mortar training company has been added to train crews for the heavy mortars, introduced into the 4th and 8th companies of the infantry regiments of regular infantry divisions. Only one training company for infantry mounted platoons in each Wehrkreis trained replacements for the mounted platoons of all the infantry regiments under its responsibility.
Recent developments, including the introduction of new weapons and the growing scarcity of training personnel in conjunction with the increasing pressure of time, have accentuated the tendency of concentration and specialization of training, and continuous reorganizations of the field divisions have made the similarity between field and training units less and less evident.
(2) Program in training units. The main responsibility for the training of recruits rests with the commander of the training unit of company size (company, battery, troop). The detailed training schedule is prepared within the framework of the company. The battalion commander supervises the progress of the training in the companies of his battalion and inspects the recruits at the end of their basic training. The commanders of higher echelons coordinate the training in the units under their command and supervise it. They are also responsible for the education and training of officers and potential officers and noncommissioned officers within these units. The latter are often placed in special companies within the training battalions and regiments.
The basic training (Grundausbildung) in infantry training units normally is planned for 16 weeks; actually this period now is reduced to 8 weeks in most cases. This period may be followed by an indefinite period of advanced training (Erweiterungsausbildung), lasting up to the time of transfer of the recruits to a field unit. The basic training usually is divided into three parts, the first of which is devoted to individual training, the second to the training of the individual recruit within the framework of the squad, and the third to the training of the squad within the framework of the platoon. During the advanced training period, the scope of training is amplified to include exercises on reinforced company or, in artillery and chemical warfare troops, even battalion level. The basic training components, listed in order of the importance attributed to them, are: combat training, firing, lectures, drilling, sports. The drill for the modern German soldier is far from what is generally believed; drilling of the famous goose-step is not permitted, and "present arms" is not taught.
(3) Training in replacement units. Although according to their organization basically not equipped for training purposes, the replacement units nevertheless perform training functions on a reduced scale. This is done in three ways:
After their induction into a replacement unit which is not stationed in the same location as its corresponding training unit, the recruits immediately are combined into training groups to undergo a one to three-week period of preparatory training (Vor-Ausbildung) until they can be sent to a training unit.
Regular training functions are performed in the convalescent components of replacement units. Their purpose is to restore the health and physique of convalescents until they regain full fitness for field duty, and also to select and train instructors for the training units. For the latter purpose special courses are conducted by the convalescent units.
After regaining their fitness for field duty, the convalescents are sent to the transfer components (Marschkompanien, etc.) of their replacement units, where they are given advanced training until the time of their transfer to a field unit.
c. NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER TRAINING. (1) General categories. The two basic categories of noncommissioned officers are the ones enlisting for either 12 or 4 1/2 years, called active or professional noncommissioned officers, and the conscripts promoted to noncommissioned officer's rank, called reserve noncommissioned officers. The active noncommissioned officers may either serve in ordinary noncommissioned officers' functions in the various arms and services or they may receive specialized training as technicians. Typical training establishments for ordinary noncommissioned officers are the Army noncommissioned officers' schools (Heeres-Unteroffizier-Schulen), for technicians the specialist training schools and the special-service schools (Waffen-Schulen) of chemical warfare troops, engineers, and signal troops. In peacetime, noncommissioned officers serving 12 years were, at the end of their service, trained for civilian occupations in Army vocational schools (Heeresfachschulen) and Armed Forces vocational schools (Wehrmachtfachschulen); in wartime, this vocational training is restricted to the rehabilitation of men no longer fit for service. The reserve noncommissioned officers receive special training in noncommissioned officer courses (Unterführer-Lehrgänge), which may be conducted in the Field Army as well as in the Replacement Army at various echelons.
(2) Ordinary noncommissioned officers. (a) Selection. In peacetime and to an even larger degree, in wartime, the German High Command considers the possession of a highly qualified noncommissioned officer corps as of vital importance for the effectiveness of the Army and endeavors by all means of propaganda to fill its ranks. For the professional noncommissioned officer corps two sources are open:
Volunteers for the noncommissioned officer career may apply at the age of 16 1/2 years and, if accepted by a selection center for potential Army officers and noncommissioned officers, enter the Army at the age of 17 as noncommissioned officer applicants (Unteroffizier-Bewerber, usually abbreviated U.B.). Some of these may have had pre-Army training for this career as junior cadets (Jungschützen) in Army noncommissioned officer preparatory schools (Heeres-Unteroffizier-Vorschulen).
Conscripts already in service who wish to enlist for either 12 or 4 1/2 years must have a good record as leaders in combat, instructors, and disciplinarians. They can enlist only after one year's service and are finally accepted only after 2 years' service. Only those are accepted for a 12-year term who will be not over 38 years of age at the end of their service period; the age limit for men enlisting for 4 1/2 years is 28 years. If acceptable, these men are appointed noncommissioned officer applicants by their battalion commanders.
(b) Training of noncommissioned officer applicants. The noncommissioned officer applicants belonging to units of the Replacement Army are normally educated and trained at the Army noncommissioned officer schools. Up to February 1944, the training period of a noncommissioned officer applicant volunteer at an Army noncommissioned officer school was 10 months. The first 4 months were devoted to basic training, and during the remaining 6 months the applicant received training as a squad leader in his particular branch of service. In February 1944, the basic training was removed entirely from the Army noncommissioned officer schools, and the applicant volunteers thenceforth were to be sent to training units of their appropriate arms for basic training, together with the other recruits inducted at the same time. The advanced training period, for applicant volunteers and appointed applicants alike, was reduced to 5 months for branches having Army noncommissioned officer schools of their own, and to 3 months for some specialized branches, whose applicants are trained at schools of related branches. These periods may be supplemented by an additional period of 1 or 3 months, respectively, spent in training units, making a total advanced training period of 6 months before the applicants graduate from the Army noncommissioned officer school and are promoted to privates first class (Gefreite). They then are transferred to a field unit.
At present, there are about 22 Army noncommissioned officer schools for infantry, one for mountain infantry, seven for Panzer troops, two for artillery, two for engineers, and one for signal troops. These schools are usually organized like a battalion of their respective arms; the Army noncommissioned officer schools for Panzer troops are specialized in one of the main branches of this arm (Panzer Grenadiers, tank crews, antitank personnel, Panzer reconnaissance personnel).
Men enlisting for long-term service while serving in the Field Army (Kapitulanten des Feldheeres) may take part either in a noncommissioned officer applicant course conducted by a field headquarters, especially in a divisional combat school, or in a course at a field noncommissioned officer school (Feld-Unteroffizier-Schule). In their training, these schools approach field conditions to a much larger degree than the Army noncommissioned officer schools; their training periods last only about 2 1/2 months. There is one field noncommissioned officer school for each of the three most important arms: infantry, Panzer troops, and artillery. They originally were located in occupied territories, but now apparently have been removed to Germany proper. They are believed to be organized like a regiment of their respective arms, including some or all of its more important special branches.
(3) Noncommissioned officer technicians. (a) Selection. A number of careers as technicians (Sonderlaufbahnen) are open for active noncommissioned officers who, as a rule, must have enlisted for 12 years; exceptions are the medical technicians, blacksmith technicians, and musicians, who will also be accepted if they enlist for the 4 1/2-year period. For most of these careers, qualified professional backgrounds are required. Upon terminating their enlistment period, most of these technicians have the opportunity, after taking additional courses at the appropriate specialist training schools, to become advanced technical or administrative officials.
(b) Training. In addition to an apprenticeship in Army units or headquarters required for most of the technician careers, courses of varying length are conducted for the various types of technicians at the specialist training schools and some special-service schools. In many cases, short or wartime courses have been established to supply sufficient personnel for the wartime Army; the men participating in these courses, however, usually will not become full-fledged technicians upon graduating from these courses but only after taking additional courses at a later opportunity. These men are not necessarily active soldiers; if they did not enlist for long-term service, they are designated as reserve noncommissioned officer technicians.
The table on page 73 shows the various types of technicians, the duration of their courses, and the schools conducting these courses.
(4) Training of reserve noncommissioned officer applicants. Conscripts who are acceptable as future noncommissioned officers and are considered for promotion, but who are not enlisting for a definite service period, are appointed reserve noncommissioned officer applicants (Reserve-Unteroffizier-Bewerber usually abbreviated R.U.B.) by their battalion commanders. The training of the reserve officer applicants normally takes place at Wehrkreis noncommissioned officer courses (Wehrkreis-Unterfü;hrer-Lehrgänge), although reserve officer applicants recently have also been trained at Army noncommissioned officer schools. Each of the original Wehrkreise has one Wehrkreis noncommissioned course, usually located at a maneuver area within the Wehrkreis itself or in a neighboring Wehrkreis. These courses are more or less organized like infantry regiments, but often include, in addition to regular infantry components, other types of specialist sub-units, such as a reconnaissance troop, a mortar training company, or a field howitzer battery. In some Wehrkreise, sub-units of the Wehrkreis noncommissioned officer course for arms other than infantry may be established with existing training units or Army noncommissioned officer schools of these arms. In Wehrkreis IX, in addition to its regular Wehrkreis noncommissioned officer course, such a course for Panzer troops has been identified.
(5) Training of noncommissioned officers for special functions. A number of noncommissioned officers are employed in functions requiring special training without being technicians. These may be trained within their own or other units or headquarters by practical experience and apprenticeship, or in special courses conducted by units or headquarters (in the field usually by the division combat schools, in the Replacement Army by the Wehrkreise), or at specialist training schools.
(a) Training by practical experience. First sergeants (Hauptfeldwebel), clothing supply sergeants (Bekleidungs-Unteroffiziere), and similar types of special function noncommissioned officers usually are trained in this manner.
(b) Training in special courses conducted by units and headquarters. This type of training usually applies to company clerks (Rechnungsführer) and to supply sergeants for weapons and equipment (Gerät-Unteroffiziere).
(c) Training at specialist training schools. Gas protection noncommissioned officers (Gasschutz-Unteroffziere) take courses at Army Gas Protection Schools 1 and 2, or at the Wehrkreis gas protection courses. Other noncommissioned officers receive special training in fire fighting at the Army Air Raid Protection School or at the Wehrkreis air raid protection courses. Field cook noncommissioned officers (Feldkoch-Unteroffiziere), mess sergeants (Küchen-Unteroffiziere), and mess clerks (Küchenbuchführer) are trained at Wehrkreis cook schools or by field cook instruction staffs.
(6) Training of intelligence personnel. Linguists who may be employed as interpreters (Dolmetscher) in all branches of the Army, but particularly as intelligence personnel, usually hold the position of specialist leaders (Sonderführer) regardless of their actual noncommissioned officer or officer rank. They receive linguistic and intelligence training in the interpreter companies, of which there is one in each Wehrkreis, and in the Interpreter Demonstration Battalion. In addition, a Signal Interpreter Replacement and Training Battalion trains signal intelligence personnel.
d. THE TRAINING OF POTENTIAL OFFICERS. (1) General. The system for training German officer replacements in wartime normally extends over a period of between 16 and 20 months (including prescribed service in the field) and is divided into three main phases. These phases differ slightly for active and reserve officer replacements, but the duration and standard of training are identical. The only difference between active and reserve officers is that the former enroll for an unlimited period of service and have to meet slightly higher physical requirements. For both categories, the training during the three main phases takes place in schools and courses devoted to this particular purpose. In the first phase, these are either officer applicant courses or reserve officer applicant courses; in the second phase officer candidate schools or courses; and in the third phase advanced officer candidate courses.
In certain cases selected enlisted men who are over 30 years old and have served in the field in combat units may become officers without attending officer candidate schools or courses but merely after a very few months of additional service in the field as officer candidates.
The following paragraphs outline the normal procedure for selecting and training active and reserve officer replacements.
(2) Potential active officers (aktiver Offizier-Nachwuchs). (a) Selection. Future active officers are selected in the following three ways:
Untrained volunteers, usually at the age of 16 or 17, after a preliminary selection by a selection center for future Army officers and noncommissioned officers (Annahmestelle für den Führernachwuchs des Heeres), enroll for an unlimited period and enter the Army as officer applicants (Offizier-Bewerber, usually abbreviated O.B.).
Conscripts already serving who are under 28 and decide to apply for the active officer career first are appointed reserve officer applicants (Reserve-Offizier-Bewerber, usually abbreviated R.O.B.), or if they have already attained noncommissioned officer grade, reserve officer candidates (Fahnenjunker der Reserve, usually abbreviated Fhj.d.R.), by their regimental (or independent battalion) commanders. A note is added to the record indicating that they intend to adopt the active officer career. They are accepted for this career upon graduating from the officer candidate course, but they must first attend a reserve officer applicant course if they have not already attained noncommissioned officer grade.
Professional noncommissioned officers may, after at least 2 months of service in the field, be appointed officer candidates (Fahnenjunker, usually abbreviated Fhj.) and be sent to an officer candidate course.
(b) Officer applicant training. This first phase of the training of future officers lasts 10 months and is designed for the untrained volunteer officer applicants. It is divided into the following two periods:
Four months of basic training in a training unit.
Six months of noncommissioned officer training in an officer applicant course (O.B.-Lehrgang). These courses usually take place at Army noncommissioned officer schools, some of which are reserved exclusively to this type of courses. In some special branches, officer applicant courses are held at the special-service schools or at training units. Upon graduation from the course, in which they are especially trained as squad leaders, the applicants are usually promoted to noncommissioned officers.
(c) Officer candidate training. After completion of their training in the Replacement Army, the officer applicants are transferred to a field unit for a period of not longer than 3 months in order to demonstrate their leadership abilities in the field. The latest tendency has been to reduce this period as much as possible, even down to a very few days, in order to preserve the potential officers who, after completion of 10 months of training in the Replacement Army, represent a valuable investment of the Army. As soon as they have proved themselves in the field they are appointed officer candidates (Fahnenjunker) and sent to an officer candidate course (Fhj.-Lehrgang) of 3 to 4 months' duration. These courses are usually conducted at the special-service schools; the infantry, Panzer troops, and artillery, however, have separate officer candidate schools and courses. It should be noted that these courses are not only attended by personnel who have passed through the officer applicant training period but also by conscript and professional noncommissioned officers who have been appointed reserve officer candidates by their regimental (or independent battalion) commanders. Toward the middle of the course, the candidates are promoted to officer candidate-staff sergeants (Fahnenjunker-Feldwebel, usually abbreviated Fhj.Fw.); upon graduation they are promoted to advanced officer candidates (Oberfähnriche, usually abbreviated Obfähnr.).
(d) Advanced officer candidate training. After completing the officer candidate course, the candidates attend an advanced officer candidate course (Oberfähnr.Lehrgang) lasting 3 months. These courses usually are conducted at the special-service schools. For advanced officer candidates of the infantry they may be conducted at especially designated infantry officer candidate schools, and for those of the Panzer troops at the Panzer troop advanced officer candidate schools. Upon graduation from these courses, the candidates are promoted to second lieutenants (Leutnant, usually abbreviated Lt.) (The word "promote"—befordern is always used; German officers are not commissioned).
(3) Potential reserve officers (Reserve-O ffizier-Nachwuchs). (a) Selection. Potential reserve officers are selected in the following ways:
Untrained volunteers may be accepted by the selection centers for potential Army officers and noncommissioned officers as aspirants for the reserve officer career (Anwärter für die Reserve-Offizier-Laufbahn). They are appointed reserve officer applicants by the regimental (or independent battalion) commander of their responsible replacement unit after 4 months' service.
During the conscription procedure suitable men may be selected by the commanders of recruiting sub-area headquarters. They have a similar career to that of the untrained volunteers described above.
Conscripts in basic training may be appointed reserve officer applicants by the regimental (or independent battalion) commander of their replacement or training unit.
Conscripts already serving for some time may be appointed reserve officer applicants, or, if they have already attained noncommissioned officer grade and, within 1 year previous to the date of their appointment, have proved themselves in a field unit, may be appointed reserve officer candidates, by the regimental (or independent battalion) commander of their field or replacement unit.
(b) Reserve officer applicant training. Untrained potential reserve officers first undergo 4 months of basic training, after which they are appointed reserve officer applicants. Reserve officer applicants who have had their basic training spend 6 months in a reserve officer applicant course (R.O.B.-Lehrgang). These courses usually are conducted by the headquarters of replacement and training units, and some infantry and artillery replacement regiments have special officer replacement companies and batteries (Offizier-Nachwuchs-Kompanien-Batterien) for this purpose. Recently, however, the ones for infantry officer applicants have been more and more concentrated on Wehrkreis level; the Wehrkreis headquarters may designate a particular infantry replacement battalion as an officer replacement battalion (Offizier-Nachwuchs-Bataillon), or conduct a special Wehrkreis reserve officer applicant course (Wkr. R.O.B.-Lehrgang). Upon conclusion of this course, in which they are primarily trained as squad leaders, the applicants are usually promoted to noncommissioned officers.
(c) Reserve officer candidate training. After completion of their training in the Replacement Army, the reserve officer applicants, just like the active officer applicants, are transferred to a field unit to prove themselves worthy, and then are appointed reserve officer candidates. Subsequently, they attend the same officer candidate schools or courses as the active officer candidates. During these courses, they are promoted to reserve officer candidate-staff sergeants (Fhj.Fw.d.R.), and upon their termination to advanced reserve officer candidates (Oberfähnrich der Reserve, usually abbreviated Oberfähnr.d.R.).
(d) Advanced reserve officer candidate training. The courses for advanced reserve officer candidates usually are conducted by the Wehrkreis headquarters. Upon graduation from these courses, the candidates are promoted to reserve second lieutenants (Leutnant der Reserve, usually abbreviated Lt.d.R.).
(4) Potential officer specialists. Slightly different rules apply for the training of potential officers in specialist careers who, in addition to their military education, require a certain type of professional training. These are the careers of medical officer, veterinary officer, ordnance officer, and officer of the motor maintenance troops. In addition, the administrative officer and judge advocate careers in the Special Troop Service require special rules regarding the replacement of their officers.
(a) Potential medical officers (Sanitäts-Offizier-Nachwuchs). Active medical officer applicants are selected from secondary school graduate volunteers by the Wehrkreis surgeon in connection with the recruiting sub-area commander. They take part in the officer applicant training conducted for potential infantry officers, and after its conclusion and a short assignment to a field unit are appointed officer candidates. At that time, they are assigned to the Medical Officer Academy and begin taking medical courses at the university. After a certain period of time they are promoted to medical technical sergeant (Feldunterarzt). Upon passing their medical examination, they become officers. Soldiers of the Field and Replacement Army may be accepted for this career if they fulfill the requirements. Doctors and medical students may become reserve medical officers. While taking medical courses at universities, the reserve medical officer candidates are assigned to medical officer feeder battalions (Sanitätsoffizier-Ergänzungs-Abteilungen).
(b) Potential veterinary officers (Veterinär-Offizier-Nachwuchs). Like the medical officer applicants, the active veterinary officer applicants are selected from young civilian volunteers and from soldiers of the Field and Replacement Armies. Their officer applicant training takes place in a mounted replacement and training unit. After their promotion to officer candidates they are assigned to the Army Veterinary Academy. They become active officers upon passing their veterinarian examinations. Veterinarians and veterinary students may become reserve veterinary officers.
(c) Potential ordnance officers (Offizier (W)-Nachwuchs). Active ordnance officers are recruited from active ordnance technicians; reserve ordnance officers from ordnance technicians with wartime training who did not enlist for the 12-year period. They are selected by their regimental (or independent battalion) commander and sent to an ordnance officer candidate course (Fahnenjunker (W)-Lehrgang) at Army Ordnance School I. During this course, which lasts 3 months for active ordnance technicians, and 9 months for reserve ordnance technicians, they are appointed ordnance officer candidates (Fahnenjunker (W)) by the commander of the Army Ordnance School. Upon graduating from these courses, they are promoted to ordnance lieutenants (Leutnant (W)).
(d) Potential officers of the motor maintenance troops (Offizier-Nachwuchs der Kraftfahrparktruppe). Active motor maintenance officers are recruited from supply technicians (MT) who are appointed officer candidates by their regimental (or independent battalion) commander and sent to officer candidate courses at the Motor Maintenance Troop School. In addition, active or reserve advanced officer candidates of other arms may be taken over into the motor maintenance troops to receive 2 to 3 months of special training at the Motor Maintenance Troop School, provided they have the required technical background. Soldiers in motor maintenance units who are over 38 years old, after at least 18 months of service, may be sent to the officer candidate courses at the Motor Maintenance Troop School; younger men may be transferred to a tank or Panzer Grenadier regiment and sent to a Panzer troop officer candidate course, to become reserve motor maintenance officers.
(e) Potential officers of the Special Troop Service (Offizier-Nachwuchs des Truppensonderdienstes). The Special Troop Service includes the administrative career (Laufbahn des Verwaltungsdienstes) and the judge advocate career (Laufbahn der Wehrmachtrichter). The officers of the administrative career are recruited from soldiers acceptable as officers of the fighting troops. Officer candidates of this career in the lower brackets are trained at the Army Administration School; active officer candidates in the higher brackets are believed to be assigned to the Administrative Academy while taking law courses at the University of Berlin. The officers of the judge advocate career are recruited from soldiers who are acceptable as officers of the fighting troops and, at the same time, have the professional qualifications to become judge advocates.
(5) The training of officers for special functions. Officers employed in specialized functions within the scope of their particular branch of service are trained for these functions at the special-service schools of their arm. The most important ones of these are: Infantry School, Mountain Infantry School, Reconnaissance and Cavalry School, Bergen and Krampnitz Schools for Panzer Troops, Artillery Schools I and II, School for Chemical Warfare Troops, Engineer Schools 1 and 2, Army Signal Schools I and II, Army Supply Troop School, Motor Maintenance Troop School, Army Administration School.
Officers who are employed in special functions not in connection with their branch of service are trained in schools or courses established for this purpose which are described below.
General Staff Corps Officers (Generalstabs-Offiziere) belong to the General Staff
Corps (Generalstab), and usually are appointed either to the Army General
Staff (Generalstab des Heeres) or to one of the General Staff
assignments (Generalstabsstellen) on lower staffs. These latter are believed to be
the assignments as chief of staff, assistant chief of staff for
(6) Senior personnel officers (Höhere Adjutanten). Courses for senior personnel officers are conducted by the Army Personnel Office. They are usually held at leading Army schools, such as the War Academy or a special-service school.
(7) Battalion commanders (Btl.-(Abt.-) Führer). Special courses for battalion commanders are conducted at an Army School for Battalion Commanders.
(8) Company commanders (Kompanieführer). Schools for company commanders may be established by armies or army groups in their rear areas.
(9) National-Socialist guidance officers (NS-Führungsoffiziere, usually abbreviated NSFO). National-Socialist guidance officers for divisions and higher headquarters take part in courses conducted by an Instruction Staff for NS Indoctrination.
(10) Gas protection officers (Gasabwehr-Offiziere, usually abbreviated Gabo). Courses for gas protection officers are conducted at Army Gas Protection Schools 1 and 2.
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