[DISCLAIMER: The following text is taken from the U.S. War Department Technical Manual, TM-E 30-451: Handbook on German Military Forces published in March 1945. — Figures and illustrations are not reproduced, see source details. — As with all wartime intelligence information, data may be incomplete or inaccurate. No attempt has been made to update or correct the text. — Any views or opinions expressed do not necessarily represent those of the website.]
CHAPTER VIII. EQUIPMENT
Section IV. SIGNAL EQUIPMENT
1. Constructional Features
a. GENERAL. Two features stand out in the construction of Germany Army communications equipment: the unit construction methods employed and the material from which the units are made.
b. UNIT CONSTRUCTION METHODS. Practically every piece of radio equipment is constructed in units, which are secured to panels and to each other, electrical connections being made by plug and socket strips or by screwing tags or soldering wires to a terminal strip. In most cases this permits quick dismantling for servicing and repair.
c. MATERIALS USED (1) General. The metal from which radio sets are made is almost universally an alloy of about 90 per cent magnesium; 8 per cent aluminum; and 2 per cent zinc, copper, and other metals. Each unit consists of a die-casting of this alloy. Not only is the main sub-chassis cast, but also the screening plates, bosses, and recesses for mounting components. The castings are accurately made, requiring little machining, thus establishing excellent mechanical rigidity and improved electrical performance.
(2) Tuning condensers. Main tuning condensers are made from the standard alloy. Both rotors and stators are machined from a block casting. Thus, there can be no deterioration in performance due to corrosion between individual plates and their mountings.
(3) Insulation. Extensive use is made of ceramic materials for insulating; they are used for tag strips, tube holders, tube bases, coil formers, and almost universally as the main bearing for ganged condensers. Where coil formers are not made from ceramics, porcelain or pressed bakelised paper is used.
(4) Condensers. Trimmer condensers are usually either small, air-spaced ones, or of the silvered ceramic-disc type (Philips), which are used to some extent in British and American equipment. Small, fixed condensers are the tubular ceramic type or flat mica type in a bakelite shroud. Except in older versions of the 100 W.S., mica is used sparingly. Larger condensers are paper-dielectric Mansbridge type. No color coding is used, the values being printed on the condenser in mF, pF, or centimeters.
(5) Resistors. Resistors are usually of the noninductive carbon type, although a few wire-wound ones are employed purely for direct current purposes, such as voltage dividers. No color coding is used, the values being printed on the resistor in ohms.
(6) Coils. Low frequency coils and chokes are wound with single-strand, enamel-insulated wire, or with silk-covered liztendraht wire. High frequency coils usually are wound with bare copper or copper strip. Alternatively, the coil former has a helical groove in which a thin layer of copper is deposited, apparently by electrolysis. The inductance of most high frequency coils can be varied within small limits by adjustment of a co-axial iron dust core, or copper ring. Intermediate frequency transformers not only have iron dust cores, but are in many cases completely enclosed in an iron dust shrouding.
(7) Tubes. German radio receivers of modern design have only one type of tube throughout, usually a pentode. These tubes are not always used in an orthodox fashion—for instance a pentode may be used as a diode—but the method considerably facilitates the supply of spares.
2. Power Supplies
Power supplies vary according to the purpose for which the piece of equipment is
used. Vehicle sets employ separate rotary converters driven from the
a. CONDENSERS. Great pains are taken to make the working of the sets as simple and reliable as possible. Tuning condensers are driven through a chain of precision gearing, using fiber and spring-loaded metallic wheels to remove backlash.
b. DIALS. The dials are of a large size, with calibration spaced over 300 degrees or more. They are accurately marked out, permitting the frequency to be set to very close limits without the use of a wavemeter. Most dials are marked with one or more check points, allowing initial calibration to be accurately set or checked by means of an external or internal crystal oscillator or by means of an internal "glow crystal" (leuchtquarz).
c. NUMBERING. As an aid to both construction and servicing, each component in a set has a number, and in many cases the wiring is numbered also. Any two points bearing the same number are directly connected.
4. Armored Vehicle Radio Sets
a. GENERAL. Complete sets in armored vehicles include transmitter, receiver, power units, and accessories, referred to by the designation Fu., followed by a number. An exception is the voice transmitting set Fu. Spr.f. used in self-propelled field and medium artillery vehicles and certain armored cars. This set has no Fu. number. Transmitters and receivers individually are referred to by a description and a letter, such as 10 watt transmitter "c".
b. RADIO SETS USED. The following tabulation shows what complete radio sets are likely to be installed in various types of armored and self-propelled artillery vehicles. Details on these sets will be found in the accompanying tables.
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