a. Organization, Administration and Strength
During the Sino-Japanese hostilities beginning in 1937, chemical
warfare units were organized by the Japanese. These were known as "Field Gas
Companies," "Temporary Smoke Battalions," and "Infantry Regimental Temporary
Smoke Companies." In addition, certain infantry regiments were reported
to have a 13th company which was used for chemical warfare purposes, although
this may be identical with the infantry regimental temporary smoke
company mentioned above. All the above units were equipped with the
toxic-smoke and lachrymatory-gas candles (see
Tactical and Technical Trends No. 7, p. 10 for
additional information on this subject).
b. Field Gas Companies
Field gas companies are nondivisional units which are allotted to divisions
for specific operations. Their organization is not known, but they are
believed to supply personnel and equipment for temporary smoke battalions.
c. Temporary Smoke Battalions
Temporary smoke battalions are probably formed from field gas
companies, and consist of a headquarters and a number of companies, each about
220 strong. The headquarters is divided into executive, meteorological,
signal, and first-aid sections. Companies consist of a headquarters and three
platoons, each of three sections. Each section consists of an NCO
and 23 men (7 of whom are drivers) and 6 one-horse carts. The section works
in 4 groups of 3 men each, the remaining 4 men being used for
intercommunication and protective duties. Four of the 6 carts each
carry 6 boxes of "smoke" candles, while the remaining 2 carry rations
and forage for 10 days.
The total number of candles carried by the company is reported as 3,240, but it is
not certain whether this number applies only to the special smoke (arsenical
toxic smoke) candles or to the ordinary smoke and green-gas (CAP nonpersistent
lachrymator) candles as well.
d. Infantry Regimental Smoke Companies
Temporary smoke companies of infantry regiments are formed from regimental
personnel trained for these duties, and are employed for specific
local operations only. The company is organized into a headquarters, similar to
that of a rifle company, and three platoons, each of 4 sections. Sections consist
of 11 men organized as leader, assistant, and 3 groups, each of 3 men. Detailed
organization is as follows:
|3 platoons, each||
Blister, choking, nose, and tear gases are all likely to be used.
(1) Blister Gases
Mustard (HS) -- Used in aircraft bombs and spray; shells, mines, and in
ground contamination apparatus.
Lewisite (MI) -- Used in aircraft bombs and spray, and in shells, generally
mixed with mustard to lower freezing point.
(2) Choking Gases
Chlorine -- Used in cylinders.
Phosgene (CG) -- Used in aircraft bombs, mine shells and cylinders.
(3) Nose Gases (toxic smokes)
Adamsite (DM) -- Used in aircraft bombs, shells, generators, and grenades.
Diphenylchlorarsine (DA) -- Used in generators.
DC -- Used in generators.
(4) Tear Gases
CAP -- Used in aircraft bombs, shells, generators, and grenades.
Bromoacetone -- Used in hand grenades.
HCN (hydrocyanic acid) -- Used in shells.
Experiments in the practical uses of the following gases have been carried
out at the Army Chemical Laboratory in Yodobashi, Tokyo:
Phosgene and diphosgene
Mustard gas (dichlordiethyl sulphide)
Lachrymator (brombenzyl cyanide)
Smoke (SO3, Phosphorus, etc.)
Incendiary mixtures (thermite, etc.).